Immunization is a process in which the person is made resistant to any kind of infection or disease with the help of government vaccines. Vaccines help to stimulate the immune system and prevents children from various diseases. In 1978, an immunization program was introduced in India by the Ministry of India, Family welfare, the government of India as ‘Expanded Programme of Immunization’ (EPI). It was modified as ‘Universal Immunization Programme’ in 1985.
Under this program, 10 different vaccines were given to children by the government health system free of cost.
BCG means Bacillus Calmette Guerin vaccine. It is given in the left upper arm as an intradermal injection. BCG vaccine is given at birth or as early as possible before 1 year. It is given to infants to protect them from tubercular meningitis and disseminated TB.
OPV stands for Oral Polio Vaccine. It is given orally in the of drops. It is given to children at birth as a zero dose. This vaccine is given to protect them from poliomyelitis. It is given on 6, 10, and 14 weeks. A booster dose is also given Between 16 and 24 months of age.
Hepatitis B Vaccine
It protects from hepatitis B virus infection. It is given at entering the anterolateral side of the mid-thigh in the form of intramuscular injection. It is given within 24 hours to a child after birth. Three doses are given in combination with DPT and Hib in the form of a pentavalent vaccine at 6, 10, and 14 weeks.
It is given to infants and children against rotavirus diarrhea. It is given in selective states. Five drops of liquid vaccine are given orally to children. Three doses are given at 6, 10, 14 weeks of age. It can be also given at the age of one year.
It is given on the anterolateral side of the mid-thigh, intramuscularly. The doses can be given till one year of age. It is given at 6, 10, and 14 weeks of age. Pentavalent vaccine is a combined vaccine that protects children from five diseases Diptheria, Tetanus, Pertussis, Haemophilus influenza type B infection, and hepatitis B.
PCV stands for the pneumococcal conjugate vaccine. It is given in the anterolateral side of the mid-thigh in the form of intramuscular injection. It protects infants and children against the diseases caused by the bacterium Streptococcus pneumonia. Likewise, it is given as two primary doses at 6and 14 weeks of age also a booster dose at 9 and 12 months of age.
Note: pentavalent vaccine and PCB are two separate injections and should be given in opposite thighs.
FIPV stands for Fractional Inactivated Poliomyelitis Vaccine. It is also another vaccine to boost protection from poliomyelitis. Two doses of IVP are given in 6 and 14 weeks of age. This vaccine is given on the upper right arm of children as an intradermal injection.
Measles / MR Vaccine
It is given to protect children from measles. The vaccine is given on the upper right arm as a subcutaneous injection. Two doses are given for this vaccine. The first is given between 9 to 12 months of age and the other is given at 16 to 24 months of age. In some states vaccine of both measles and rubella is given combined to prevent children from both.
JE means Japanese Encephalitis Vaccine. It is given to protect against Japanese Encephalitis disease. It is given in select districts for JE after campaigns. The killed vaccine is given in mid-thigh as an intramuscular injection. The live attenuated vaccine is given in the upper left arm as a subcutaneous injection. JE is given in two doses, in 9 to 12 months of age and 16 to 24 months of age.
It is a combined vaccine and prevents diphtheria, tetanus, and pertussis. It is also given in 2 doses. One is given at 16 to 24 months of age and the other dose is given at 5 to 6 years of age. The first booster is given as intramuscular ingestion in the anterolateral mid-thigh in the left leg. The other booster is given in the upper left arm as an intramuscular injection.
These were some Vaccine that is important for infants and children. It should be given on time, or it can be harmful to children’s health.